The World that Changed the Machine. An analysis schema of productive models

Reference

Boyer R., Freyssenet M., "The World that Changed the Machine. An analysis schema of productive models, La Lettre du GERPISA, february, 2000, n°139, pp 2-4 ; march 2000, n°140, pp 2-6 ; april 2000, n°141, pp 4-7, may 2000, n°142, pp ; June 2000, n° 143, pp. Digital publication, gerpisa.univ-evry.fr, 2001; freyssenet.com, 2006, 200 Ko.

The text is downloadable. Please, go to the end of this page.

The first publication of this text was in the Lettre of GERPISA, in serial in five consecutive issues : (1) Conditions for profitability"; (2) Profit Sources and Strategies" ; (3) "Competed-Competitive" Income Growth and Distribution Modes. The "diversity and flexibility" profit strategy. The "Taylorian" and Woollardian" models"; (4), Income Growth and Distribution Modes within a Nationally Coordinated and Moderately Hierarchized Distribution, ‘Volume’, ‘Volume and Diversity’ and ‘Permanent Cost Reduction at Constant Volume’ Profit Strategies, the ‘Fordian’, Sloanian’ and ‘Toyotan ‘ Models" ; (5), The National Income Growth and Distribution Modes that were in Favour to ‘Innovation and Flexibility’ Profit Strategy, the ‘Hondian’ Model that Implemened It".

Abstract

The text begins by two essential conditions for carmakers to maintain long lasting profitability, main conclusion of GERPISA works. The first one consists in a pertinent profit strategy with regards to national income growth and distribution modes. The second requires coherence among product policy, productive organization, and employment relationships in light of the adopted profit strategy, thanks to an enterprise government compromise obtained by major actors and relative to the means to be employed.

After the text defines the notions used: profit sources and strategies, national income growth and distribution modes, enterprise government compromise, and productive model. It is established a list of profit sources and profit strategies. Finally, three combinations of national income growth and distribution modes, profit strategies and compatible productive models are presented

The first is made up of an income growth and distribution mode that we have called "competed-competitive"; the "diversity and flexibility" strategy, the "Taylorian" model, and the "Woollardian" model. The second group is made up of income growth and distribution modes that share the common element of nationally coordinated and moderately hierarchized distribution; profit strategies based on "volume", "volume and diversity", "reducing costs at constant volume", the "Fordian", "Sloanian", and "Toyotan" models. The third group is that of income growth and distribution modes that are regular, however revenue distribution is "competitive"; the "innovation and flexibility" strategy and the "Hondian" model.

Content

1. Conditions for profitability
2. Profit Sources and Strategies
2.1. The six sources of profit
2.2. Profit strategies are profit source combinations set in compatible proportions
2.2.1. The "volume" strategy
2.2.2. The "volume and diversity" strategy
2.2.3. The "permanent reduction of costs at constant volume" strategy
2.2.4. The "innovation and flexibility" strategy
2.2.5. The "quality" strategy
2.2.6. The "diversity and flexibility" strategy
3. "Competed-Competitive" Income Growth and Distribution Modes. The "diversity and flexibility" profit strategy. The "Taylorian" and Woollardian" models
4. Income Growth and Distribution Modes within a Nationally Coordinated and Moderately Hierarchized Distribution, ‘Volume’, ‘Volume and Diversity’ and ‘Permanent Cost Reduction at Constant Volume’ Profit Strategies, the ‘Fordian’, Sloanian’ and ‘Toyotian ‘ Models"
4.1. The "volume" strategy and the Fordian model
4.2. The "volume and diversity" strategy and the "Sloanian" model
4.3. The "permanent cost reductions at a constant volume" strategy and the "Toyotian" model
5. The national income growth and distribution modes that were in favour to « innovation and flexibility » strategy. The « hondian » model that implemented it.

Key words

Automobile, car makers, growth mode, profit strategy, productive models, employment relationships, productive organisation, product policy, business history, theory of firm, Fordism, fordian model, Taylorism, taylorian model, sloanian model, Toyotism, Japan, Henry Ford, Alfred Sloan, General Motors, Ford Motor Company, F.W. Taylor, Chrysler, mass production, commonalisation, economies of scale, variety, cost reduction, innovation, flexibility, labour, market.

Concerned disciplines

Economics, Management, History, History of Sciences and of Technologies, Sociology.

Writing context

Contribution
to personal questioning
to scientific reflexion of research laboratory or network
to national and international scientific debate
to diffusion of scientific results
to implementation of scientific results

References, commentaries, critics

Curent relevance

See also

✔ Boyer R., Freyssenet M., "Le monde qui a changé la machine. Synthèse des travaux du GERPISA, 1993-1999", in Freyssenet, M., Lung, Y. (dir.), Actes de la Huitième Rencontre Internationale du GERPISA, 8-10 juin 2000, palais du Luxembourg, Paris "Le monde qui a changé la machine. Perspective pour l'industrie automobile au début du XXIème siècle", Cédérom. Éditions numériques, gerpisa.univ-evry.fr., 2003; freyssenet.com, 2006, 650 ko. Version en anglais Boyer R., Freyssenet M. « The World that Changed the Machine. Synthesis of Research Programs, 1993-1999 », ibidem. Éditions numériques, gerpisa.univ-evry.fr., 2003; freyssenet.com, 2006, 650 ko. Deuxième publication dans une revue allemande avec texte en anglais, Boyer R., Freyssenet M., "A New Approach of Productive Models. The World That Changed the Machine", Industrielle Beziehungen, 2000/4, pp 385-412. Troisième publication dans une revue brésilienne, avec texte en portugais, Boyer R., Freyssenet M., "O Mundo que Mudou a Maquina. Syntese dos trabalhos do GERPISA, 1993-1999", Nexos econômicos, vol II, n°1, Outobro de 2000, pp 15-47. Quatrième publication dans une revue espagnole en espagnol, Boyer R., Freyssenet M., "El mundo que cambia la maquina. Une nuevo esquema de analysis de la industria automovil", Sociologia del Trabajo, n° 41, fev 2001, pp 3-44. Cinquième publication dans une revue italienne, avec texte en français, Boyer R., Freyssenet M., "Le monde qui a changé la machine. Un schéma d'analyse des modèles productifs", Economia e Politica Industriale, n°110, juin 2001, pp 33-68. Sixième publication dans une revue japonaise, texte en japonais, Boyer R., Freyssenet M., "Le monde qui a changé la machine: un nouveau schéma d'analyse de l'industrie automobile" (en japonais), Keizai Seminar, n°562, nov 2001, pp 62-68 (1ère partie), n°563, déc 2001, pp 58-65 (2ème partie), n°564, janv 2002, pp 54-59 (3ème partie). Septième publication en français et en anglais, Boyer R., Freyssenet M., « Le monde qui a changé la machine. Synthèse des travaux du GERPISA, 1993-1999 », Actes du GERPISA, n°31, avril 2001, pp 7-71. Éditions numériques, gerpisa.univ-evry.fr., 2003. Boyer R., Freyssenet M., "The World that Changed the Machine. Synthesis of GERPISA Research programs, 1993-1999", Actes du GERPISA, n°31, avril 2001, pp 7-71. Éditions numériques, gerpisa.univ-evry.fr., 2003. Huitième publication en français, Boyer R., Freyssenet M., "Le monde qui a changé la machine: un nouveau schéma d'analyse de l'industrie automobile", in Bonin et alii (dir.), Transnational Companies: 19-20th centuries, P.L.A.G.E., European Business History Association, Paris, 2002, pp 555-578.

✔ Boyer R., Freyssenet M., Les modèles productifs, Paris, Repères, La Découverte, 2000, 128 p. Version en espagnol, Boyer R., Freyssenet M., Los modelos productivos, Lumen Humanitas, Buenos Aires, Mexico, 2001, 115 p. Version anglaise révisée, Boyer R., Freyssenet M., The productive models. The conditions of profitability, Londres, New York, Palgrave, 2002, 126 p. Version allemande révisée et augmentée, Boyer R., Freyssenet M., Produktionmodelle, Ein e Typologie am Beispiel der Automobilindustrie, Edition Sigma, Berlin, 2003, 160 p. Deuxième publication en espagnol, Boyer R., Freyssenet M., Los modelos productivos, Editorial Fundamentos, Madrid, 2003, 155 p. Version italienne révisée et augmentée., Boyer R., Freyssenet M., Oltre Toyota. I nuovi modelli produttivi, EGEA, Università Bocconi Editore, Milano, 2005, 170 p.

Possible purchase websites

http://www.gerpisa.univ-evry.fr/

Last presentation updating

2006.05.09

Date of the putting on line of the downloadable text

2006.05.09, Boyer R., Freyssenet M., "The World that Changed the Machine, La Lettre du GERPISA, february, 2000, n°139, pp 2-4 ; march 2000, n°140, pp 2-6 ; april 2000, n°141, pp 4-7, may 2000, n°142, pp ; June 2000, n° 143, pp.

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Lettre, The World that changed the machine.pdf218.72 Ko
Lettre n 139.pdf178.77 Ko
Lettre n 140.pdf121.81 Ko
Lettre n 141.pdf128.86 Ko
Lettre n 142.pdf220.58 Ko
Lettre n 143.pdf169.66 Ko