by research question

➼ A " research question " is a question which polarizes or polarized the debates among researchers, even the public debate, because of the scientific and practical stakes which they imply. It requires very often the interdisciplinary confrontation - cooperation among researchers and among researchers and actors to be surmonted. The research questions are ranked by big domain.

More still than for the classification by theme, the same publication can appear under several questions. The place of the publications can evolve following a better evaluation of the relevance of the texts. Also new questions will appear according to the evolution of the debates.

The publications placed in a research question don’t always propose an answer to this question. They suggest sometimes only a way to treat it and somes elements of reflection. The proposed answer, when it exists, is susceptible also to evolve.

Educational and social trajectories
What is the propable future for the pupils and for the students, according to their social origin and their school level?

The social space
What are the logics in the changes of place of residence and of employment
How is renewed the social segregation in the urban space?
Is the spatial division of work the spatial projection of the division of work?
Why and how the social space and the international division of labor change when a "technological revolution" happen?

The work and its division
Is the work an universal activity, inherent to the human beings?
Are the productive techniques socially neutral?
Is the assembly line an economical, technical and intellectual necessity?
Does the automation raise the individual intelligence required to do a task?
What are the conditions of pertinence of the technical choices for a capitalist company?
Why are there different organizations of work at identical technical level in the same country and in the same firm?
Why is the work divided? and how?
Does the division of labour evolve always in the same direction?
Is the intellectual division of labour linked to the taylorism, or at least to its principles ?
Did new productive models invert the division of labour?
Is a durable inversion of the intellectual division of labour possible within the capital – labour relationships?
Is it possible to define and to estimate the competence really required to do a task?
Do the really required competences and the jobs classifications evolve to the same direction?

Sciences, Technologies and Societies
Under what conditions an invention transforms the way of life in a society dominated by the capital-labor nexus?
Are the productive techniques socially neutral?
Is the assembly line an economical, technical and intellectual necessity?

Employment, unemployment, demand of goods and service
What is the chance for someone to obtain a job corresponding to his school level
What were exactly the changes of the work conditions and the life conditions during the thirty years after war II in France and in some other countries?
Why do the mass unemployment and the precarious conditions prevailed in France since the 80s?
How does the demand evolve and how is it structured? How do companies intervene in this process?
How is the working demand socially constructed? How do companies intervene in this process?
How does an employment system emerge, diffuse and disappear ?

Life and disappearance of companies
What are the processes driving a capitalist company to the bankruptcy?
On what conditions a capitalist firm can last?
What possible trade-union strategies against bankruptcies of company and against the relocation?
Can the actors of the company reconcile social requirements and economic efficiency in capitalist regime? Can they combine short term compromise and radical change strategy?
When does a trajectory of firm become productive model?
Will toyotisme be the productive model of the XXI ème century?
Is there an universal model or several viable productive models in capitalist context?
Can the employment relation be independent from the productive organization and from the product policy of the company?
Has the notion of fordisme still an interest?
Is it necessary to get grow to succeed? Fusion-acquisition-alliance
Do firms globalize or regionalize?
Can one consider that the evolution of firms are universally marked by " heavy trends "? Automatisation, flexibilisation, outsourcing, modularisation, financiarisation, tertiarisation, innovation, etc.
What differentiates substantially companies? The culture, the strategy, the shareholding, the internal confrontations/compromise, the vision of the leaders, the country, the social relationships which they embody, etc.?
How the productive models are transformed?
Can the productive models be transplanted?
Why numerous denials imposed on the forecasts? How to do forecasts more sure?

The macro-micro links, the individual–society links
Does the successful productive model change the national model and the world?
How are constituted and evolve a branch of activity and its competitive space?
What are the links between productive models and national growth models?
How to define a national model?
Is the growth a stake for all the national actors? Is it the subject of the national compromise?
What is a social relationships?